In this shiur Rabbi Triebitz discusses the basis for chumros, and when it is permitted to follow a chumrah. He begins with the Gemara’s discussion of Rabbi Tarfon (who was nearly killed because he wanted to be stringent like Beis Shammai – and the other Rabbis told him that he deserved to die because his chumrah was not legitimate) on Berachos 10b-11a.
The main source here is the Beer Sheva (Responsa 21) who is cited by the Magen Avraham in Shulchan Aruch.
The other key source is the Yerushalmi Shabbos 1:2 which states that anyone who follows a chumrah is a ‘hedyot’ (which basically means what it sounds like).
This is a very important shiur for those who want to understand the nature and role of chumros, and when it is permitted to be stringent, and when not.
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Source of Halacha 14